Breadfruit Institute     Global Breadfruit            Africa's Breadfruit Revolution

--------------------------------
cassava                                12
yam                                       12
most breadfruit in Afr.   15~20
Samoan breadfruit            ~30
     metric tons per hectare
60 breadfruit trees per hectare

-------------------------------------



The safest ecoforest is one that is also a treasured source of carbohydrate.JCM


Nigeria's African Breadfruit Revolution
Treculia ("African Breadfruit") Page

Support Wikipedia
Jeff Marck - July 2013
I would be very grateful for news from Nigeria about the commercial processesing of Treculia and Artocarpus into marketable foodstuffs.
"Money doesn't grow on trees but a certain kind of bread flour does...."JCM

If a man plants ten breadfruit trees in his life, which he can do in about an hour,
he would completely fulfil his duty to his own as well as future generations.

   Joseph Banks, 1769, reporting on the situation in Tahiti




But for breadfruit, there is NO ecoforest solution that is also a carbohydrate solution.JCM

--------------------------------
cassava                                12
yam                                       12
most breadfruit in Afr.   15~20
Samoan breadfruit            ~30
metric tons per hectare
60 breadfruit trees per hectare

-------------------------------------

A REALLY good read:

Traditional post-harvest technology of perishable tropical staples
FAO 1984

--------------------------------
cassava                                12
yam                                       12
most breadfruit in Afr.   15~20
Samoan breadfruit            ~30
metric tons per hectare
60 breadfruit trees per hectare

-------------------------------------


--------------------------------
cassava                                12
yam                                       12
most breadfruit in Afr.   15~20
Samoan breadfruit            ~30
metric tons per hectare
60 breadfruit trees per hectare

-------------------------------------

A REALLY good read:

Traditional post-harvest technology of perishable tropical staples
FAO 1984

Treculia Links and Resources
Why Now?
Population in West Africa
Breadfruit Nutrients
Frequently Asked Questions
Ukwa Home Recipes
Breadfruit Links and Resources

--------------------------------
cassava                                12
yam                                       12
most breadfruit in Afr.   15~20
Samoan breadfruit            ~30
metric tons per hectare
60 breadfruit trees per hectare

-------------------------------------

Treculia Links and Resources
Why Now?
Population in West Africa
Breadfruit Nutrients
Frequently Asked Questions
Ukwa Home Recipes
Breadfruit Links and Resources

--------------------------------
cassava                                12
yam                                       12
most breadfruit in Afr.   15~20
Samoan breadfruit            ~30
metric tons per hectare
60 breadfruit trees per hectare

-------------------------------------

Treculia Links and Resources


Link: Other free pdf downloads on breadfruit and African breadfruit in scientific journals

This page will grow over time. We Breadfruit Institute Africa volunteers have mostly concerned ourselves with bringing the highest producing Samoan and other Pacific Island breadfruit coming to Africa. But the most visits to our web pages come from Nigeria and are asking about Treculia cultivation, commercial and household processing, etc. as seen in the links below. And the same mass propagation techniques as used for the Pacific Islands varieties and be applied to the highest producing Treculia varieties as well. For the moment we have done what we can to provide these links to our own downloads of scientific articles on Treculia... which are to date mostly by Nigerian authors:

Adepeju, A.B, S.O. Gbadamosi, A.H. Adeniran, and T.O. Omobuwajo (2011) Functional and pasting characteristics of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) flours. African Journal of Food Science Vol. 5(9), pp. 529-535.

Agbogidi, O.M., N.E. Edema and I. Agboje (2011) Evaluation of African Breadfruit (Treculia africana Decene) for biomediation in soils impacted with crude oil. IJSN 2(3):461-466.

Ajayi, O.B. (2004) Effects of different storage conditions on the microbiological quality and nutrient content of African breadfruit (Artocarpus communis. Forst.). Masters thesis. Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. (Not a Treculia study but it is a breadfruit topic so it is included here).

Akanbi, T.O., S. Nazamid and A.A. Adebowale (2009) Functional and pasting properties of a tropical breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) starch from Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. IFRJ 16:151-157. (Not a Treculia topic but it is a Nigerian breadfruit topic so it is included here).

Amiebenomo, S.O., I.I. Omorodion and F. Igbesi (2013) Development and performance evaluation of an African breadfruit shredder machine. IJERT 2(3):1-11.

Arigbede, O.M., U.Y. Anele, A.O. Jolaosho, J.A. Olanite, O.S. Onifade and T.A. Wahab (2008) Chemical composition and in vitro gas production of African breadfruit (Treculia africana) var. Decne. Arch. Zootec. 57(218):113-121.

Arowora, K.A., B.A. Ogundele, and A.O. Ajani (2012) Storability of breadfruit and its hazard analysis in Nigeria. Journal of Stored Products and Postharvest Research Vol. 3(5), pp. 6366.

Atuanya, C.U., V.S. Aigbodion and S.C. Nwigbo (2012) Characterization of breadfruit seed hull ash for potential utilization in metal matrix composites for automotive application. Peoples Journal of Science and Technology 2(1):1-7.

Chinaka, C. (1998)  Orchard practice for the African breadfruit (Treculia africana) in  Nigeria. National Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Services, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Horticultural Series 3. Extension Bulletin 85.

Ejidike, B.N and O. Ajileye (2007) Nutrient composition of African breadfruit (Treculia africana) seed hull and use in diets for the African Giant Land Snail, Archachatina. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 6(2):201-203

Ep, B. A. Roa and N. Do (2012) Hepatoprotective activity of African breadfruit  (Treculia africana Decne) seedoil against chemical-induced liver damage. IJBPAS 1(10):1422-1433.

Fasasi, O.S. A.F. Eleyinmi, A.R. Fasasi and O.R. Karim (2003) Chemical properties of raw and processed breadfruit (Treculia africana) seed flour. African Crop Science Conference Proceedings 6:547-551.

Lancaster, P.A. and D.G. Coursey (1984) Traditional post-harvest technology of perishable tropical staples. FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin No. 59.

Malomo, S.A., A.F. Eleyinmi, and J.B. Fashakin (2011) Chemical composition, rheological properties and bread making potentials of composite flours from breadfruit, breadnut and wheat. African Journal of Food Science Vol. 5(7), pp. 400-410.

Nwabueze, T.U. and U. Otunwa (2006) Effect of supplementation of African breadfruit (Treculia africana) hulls with organic wastes on growth characteristics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. African Journal of Biotechnology 5(16):1494-1498.

Nwabueze, T.U. and C.B. Uchendu (2011) African breadfruit (Treculia africana) Seed as adjunct in ethanol production. European Journal of Food Research and Review
1(1):15-22.

Nzekwe, U, I.M. Ojeifor and H.E. Nworie (2010) Assessment of the gestation period and economic yield of African breadfruit, Treculia africana, var. africana Decne,  Moraceae.  Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension
9(1):18-23.

Oladunjoye, I.O., A.D. Ologhobo and C.O. Olaniyi (2010) Nutrient composition, energy value and residual antinutritional factors in differently processed breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) meal. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 9 (27), pp. 4259-4263.

Olaoye, O.A., A.A. Onilude C.O. Oladoye (2007) Breadfruit flour in biscuit making: effects on product quality. African Journal of Food Science. pp. 20-23.

Onyekwelu, J.C and O.J. Fayose (2007) Effect of storage methods on the germination and proximate composition of Treculia africana seeds. Conference on International Agricultural Research for Development, University of Kassel-Witzenhausen and University of Göttingen, October 9-11, 2007.

Osabor, V.N., D.A. Ogar, P.C. Okafor and G.E. Egbung (2009) Profile of the African bread fruit (Treculia africana). Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 8(7):1005-1008.

Osuji, J.O. and Owei, S.D. (2010) Mitotic index studies on Treculia africana Decne. in Nigeria. Australian Journal of Agricultural Engineering 1(1):25-28.

Prescod, F. (Undated) Breadfruit, breadnut and jackfruit: How are they related? Breadruit Institute pamphlet.

Sonde, CU. and S.A. (2012) Sorption studies on the use of African breadfruit (Treculia
africana) seed hull as adsorbent for the removal of Cu2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ from aqueous solutions. American Journal of Physical Chemistry 1(1):11-21.

Ugwu, F. M. and N.A. Oranye (2006) Effects of some processing methods on the toxic
components of African breadfruit (Treculia africana). African Journal of Biotechnology 5(22):2329-2333.


--------------------------------
cassava                                12
yam                                       12
most breadfruit in Afr.   15~20
Samoan breadfruit            ~30
metric tons per hectare
60 breadfruit trees per hectare

-------------------------------------

A REALLY good read:

Traditional post-harvest technology of perishable tropical staples
FAO 1984
Why now?

It has been the finding of the Breadfruit Institute that if one wishes to engage in mass propagation and plantings of breadfruit for food security, as a source of product for food processing factories, or for reforestation (Haiti needs many hundreds of thousands just as a start, really), it is particular Pacific Islands seedless varieties that, by far, produce the greatest yields. And now they can be generated in short time in laboratories by the tens of thousands.

Where African breadfruit (Nigerian "ukwa") is especially treasured, the very best plants can also be duplicated and mass propagated, eliminating the uncertainty of which plants, from seeds, will fail to live up to the productivity of the parent tree.

It has been more than 240 years since Joseph Banks (top of page) alluded to a most basic advantage of breadfruit from a farmer's point of view: the absence of the annual planting and cultivation labors (inputs) associated with grains and tubers. One need only pluck from homestead, grove or forest stands all that one needs so long as oneself or one's parents or grandparents exercised the most minimal diligence in thinking of the future, ensuring about one tree per capita.

Why have most of 250 years passed since Banks' observation and somebody taking action?

Actually transhipments seem to have occurred from about the time of Banks' observation, events bringing certain Philippine, Tahitian and other varieties to the Caribbean and Central American coast, the first dedicated British shipment famously foiled by the mutiny on the Bounty (1789). The early plants were prized possessions in the West Indies and breadfruit became and remains the national food of Jamaica and an important food through parts of the Caribbean and coastal Central America. All together, at least five or six varieties from the Pacific Islands and Insular Southeast Asia seem to have been established in those parts of the New Worldbefore modern times. Some Tahitian varieties were brought from the Caribbean by missionaries to Ghana (1840s) and other West African locations.


--------------------------------
cassava                                12
yam                                       12
most breadfruit in Afr.   15~20
Samoan breadfruit            ~30
metric tons per hectare
60 breadfruit trees per hectare

-------------------------------------

A REALLY good read:

Traditional post-harvest technology of perishable tropical staples
FAO 1984

--------------------------------
cassava                                12
yam                                       12
most breadfruit in Afr.   15~20
Samoan breadfruit            ~30
metric tons per hectare
60 breadfruit trees per hectare

-------------------------------------

A REALLY good read:

Traditional post-harvest technology of perishable tropical staples
FAO 1984



--------------------------------
cassava                                12
yam                                       12
most breadfruit in Afr.   15~20
Samoan breadfruit            ~30
metric tons per hectare
60 breadfruit trees per hectare

-------------------------------------

A REALLY good read:

Traditional post-harvest technology of perishable tropical staples
FAO 1984


--------------------------------
cassava                                12
yam                                       12
most breadfruit in Afr.   15~20
Samoan breadfruit            ~30
metric tons per hectare
60 breadfruit trees per hectare

-------------------------------------


Population in West Africa
population pyramids and breadfruit pyramids
One Samoan or African breadfruit tree per capita?
The magic bullet? Why not?

A widely quoted/reproduced set of Population Fund estimates of the world's population 1950 to 2050 includes the following figures for West African nations. It is only the coastal nations which are at least partially endowed with tropical rain forest climates well suited to breadfruit cultivation:

Country
Population - (000)

     1950

     2000

   2025

   2050






Nigeria 29,790 113,862 202,957 278,788
Ghana 4,900 19,306 30,936 40,056
Cameroon 4,466 14,876 23,986 32,284
Côte d'Ivoire 2,775 16,013 25,024 32,185
Senegal 2,500 9,421 16,511 22,711
Guinea 2,550 8,154 14,120 20,711
Benin 2,046 6,272 11,992 18,070
Liberia 824 2,913 7,638 14,370
Sierra Leone 1,944 4,405 9,052 14,351
Togo 1,329 4,527 8,219 11,832
Guinea-Bissau 505 1,199 2,170 3,276
Gambia 294 1,303 2,077 2,605
Coastal West Africa 53,923 202,251 354,682 491,239





  Burkina Faso 3,960 11,535 25,227 46,304
  Mali 3,520 11,351 23,461 41,724
  Chad 2,658 7,885 16,383 27,732
  Niger 2,500 10,832 25,725 51,872
  Mauritania (less known) 825 2,664 7.500 12,000
 Sahel West Africa 13,463 42,267 96,147 176,084





  West Africa 67,386 244,518 450,829 667,323

As can be seen, most of the countries roughly doubled twice in population 1950-2000 but are expected to double approximately only once plus a fraction 2000-2050, the slowing of the rate expected to be more pronounced 2025-2050 than 2000-2025. This is seen, for instance, in the Nigerian case which has accounted, through time, up to now and probably into the future, for about half these nations' total population and about half these nations' total growth.

So what would things look like if all these countries suddenly decided that they would create a year-round national caloric surplus by 2025 and continue to expand the surplus through to 2050 by establishing enough old and new variety breadfruit trees to produce 180 kg of bread flour for each resident of each nation each year?

This would mean approximately one tree per resident. One tree per resident fruiting at 500 kg per year (150 kg dry weight bread flour - packaged and stored at 14% moisture content = ~175 kg - almost precisely the target). About 500 gm per day. 500 gm of bread flour provides about 1700 calories/ 7000 kj - rather at the low end of a grown man's requirements but there would be women and children with their lower needs in the equation and taken together with - west to east - rice, cassava and yam (and some sweet potato) production, this all adds up to a general goal of one tree per capita (including a tree each for all these nations' persons in dense urban areas and agricultural areas where breadfruit does not thrive - a general vision of each tropical rain forest dweller making up the difference by having a second tree or, on average, 1.5 trees or whatever would serve to bring the national average to 1 improved variety tree per person.

Jumping to the conclusion... I take the view that it might well require the commercial production of bread flour from breadfruit to see breadfruit creeping into a more favoured-food category in more sub-regions and that would, in turn, stimulate more planting labours/inputs on the part of the average West African farmer and more breadfruit-as-a-packaged-food demand on the part of these nation's urban and dry climate residents.

It seems most prudent to imagine fits and starts at every level including more processing of seasonal surpluses from existing trees, micro and macro processing concepts, a slower encroachment of the new varieties than might be hoped for due to both funding and cultural constraints... and momentum only after a decade or two of all these variables feeding and growing on each other before farmers, processors and consumers across the region develop the necessary curiosity and motivation to make the desired commitments, changes and inputs.

Our informal working group presently promotes a vision of seeking funding for experimental and demonstration centres at existing agricultural research stations, amongst Farmer Based and Community Based Orgainizations with at least one grant for each coastal nation from Senegal to Cameroon. The general model is $15,000 to $25,000 grants for each which would establish 1000 to 2,500 trees at and near a respected agricultural station or combination of such stations in a staged way, establishing the beginnings of the West African and eventual tropical African Breadfruit Revolution at large.

With peer to peer capacity building, subsequent shipments would require much less support and moving towards cost recovery by sale of the plants would follow to some extent the Caribbean model where the thriving 2009 planting in Jamaica has recently incited so much demand. Ghana is leading the way with 640 little Samoan variety trees chirping away in field plantings established in May, 2012.

The goals of these initial grants are simple and based upon Global Breadfruit's initial experiences with their shipments where the first shipment to be placed in the hands of professionals - the Jamaican Ministry of Agriculture - 2009 - is thriving and created such excitement at the age of three years (they are already three metres tall and fruiting) that Global Breadfruit is getting many Caribbean orders for thousands of trees as a result.

That happy story from Jamaica where a project took all Global Breadfruit advice and achieved ~100% survival is one whose project procedures and results we seek to emulate in these first shipments to Africa.

Our loose African model involves staged national programs such that a second national program will receive plants a year after the first so that the experience of the first will inform the second, experiences of the first and second will inform the third and so on. With the initial success story in Jamaica in 2009-2013, our informal group of advisors and participants saw the Bunso and Somanya, 
Ghana plantings and proposes to move on with as many as another five or more in 2013.

It is best not to draw straight lines on graph paper when serendipitous circumstance may become involved and all we can do for the moment is to get the ball rolling and see what we shall see.

I'm guessing that for West Africa on a 5 year basis there will be an initial round of successful donor-funded farmer-oriented projects, all adding up to $1 million or less, by which time the agricorporations start taking an interest and bring their resources into the equation, those economies of scale seeing purchase price savings to co-ops and small farmers as well. Finished product (bread flour [and many other products, actually]) would bring them $3000 to $4000 per hectare, as do palm oil tree plantings, and could occur in the context of general biodiversity and reforestation plantings that are more difficult to achieve with other tree crops.


--------------------------------
cassava                                12
yam                                       12
most breadfruit in Afr.   15~20
Samoan breadfruit            ~30
metric tons per hectare
60 breadfruit trees per hectare

-------------------------------------

Breadfruit Nutrients

Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is an underutilized staple crop developed over thousands of years by the indigenous peoples of Oceania. The current study evaluated protein and mineral content, fruit morphology and flour production in 94 cultivars of breadfruit grown within a single location at the National Tropical Botanical Garden in Hawaii. Across the cultivars, fruit weight ranged from 0.47 3.54 kg, the edible portion of the fruit after seeds, skin and core were removed ranged from 0.30 to 3.11 kg and the average protein content varied from 2.7 to 6.2% by dry weight. Depending on the cultivar, the fruit contained on a dry weight basis 2831491 mg/g Ca, 3.631 ng/g Co, 1.15.6 mg/g Cu, 6.2 21.2 mg/g Fe, 7.516.2 mg/g K, 6302281 mg/g Mg, 70843 mg/g Na, 8462379 mg/g P, and 1.510.7 mg/ g Zn, representing significantly more calcium, cobalt, iron, potassium, and magnesium, comparable phosphorous, and slightly lower manganese and zinc than refined wheat, rice and corn flours. Together, these data are indicative of the high degree of phenotypic diversity of cultivated varieties of breadfruit and the potential for identification of individual varieties that are particularly good sources of mineral and protein nutrition.


--------------------------------
cassava                                12
yam                                       12
most breadfruit in Afr.   15~20
Samoan breadfruit            ~30
metric tons per hectare
60 breadfruit trees per hectare

-------------------------------------

A REALLY good read:

Traditional post-harvest technology of perishable tropical staples
FAO 1984

Frequently Asked Questions

Commercial processing of breadfruit:


Like potatoes, sweet potatoes and yam, fresh Artocarpus altilis breadfruit is about 70% moisture and responds well to the same machinery and processes for handling commercial quantities. The washing equipment, peeling equipment, slicing and grating equipment, and such processes as drying and grinding into bread flour which are used in processing potatoes, sweet potatoes and yam are all suitable and successful when applied to most  breadfruit varieties.

Breadfruit, jackfruit and "African breadfruit":

Breadfruit, jackfruit and African breadfruit are all of the mulberry family but are evolutionarily quite distinct from each other as they were in their native distributions before agricultural and semi-agricultural peoples began moving them to new places thousands of years ago. Their scientific names are:

Breadfruit: (Moraceae [mulberry]): Artocarpus altilis
     Link: AgroForestryTree Database - Artocarpus altilis

Jackfruit:
(Moraceae [mulberry]): Artocarpus heterophyllus

     Link: AgroForestryTree Database - Artocarpus heterophyllus

African breadfruit:
(Moraceae [mulberry]): Treculia africana

     Link: AgroForestryTree Database- Treculia africana

Breadfruit flour:


Link: "In Barbados and Brazil there is a way to substituting breadfruit in part for wheat flour in breadmaking, and it is called Breadfruit flour. Breadfruit flour is much richer than wheat flour in lysine and other essential amino acids. This new combination has been found more nutritious than wheat flour alone...."



Ukwa Home Preparation

All Nigerian Foods
Dobbys Signature: Nigerian Food Blog
Ukwa with Peppered Salmon
Ukwa Porriage
How to Cook Ukwa Video
Some Healthy Diet Benifits #1
Some Healthy Diet Benifits #2
Some Healthy Diet Benifits #3




--------------------------------
cassava                                12
yam                                       12
most breadfruit in Afr.   15~20
Samoan breadfruit            ~30
metric tons per hectare
60 breadfruit trees per hectare

-------------------------------------

Treculia Links and Resources
Why Now?
Population in West Africa
Breadfruit Nutrients
Frequently Asked Questions
Ukwa Home Recipes

Breadfruit Links and Resources

--------------------------------
cassava                                12
yam                                       12
most breadfruit in Afr.   15~20
Samoan breadfruit            ~30
metric tons per hectare
60 breadfruit trees per hectare

-------------------------------------



Breadfruit Links

A good place to start:

D. Ragone, M.B. Taylor 2007
I International Symposium on Breadfruit Research and Development


Available for free downloading:

Diane Ragone 2009
Farm and Forestry Production and Marketing Profile for Breadfruit


Ragone D. 2008. Regeneration guidelines: breadfruit
Diane Ragone and Catherine G. Cavaletto
Economic Botany 60(4):335-346 2006
Sensory evaluation of fruit quality and nutritional composition of 20 breadfruit (Artocarpus, Moraceae) cultivars


Ragone, Diane. 1997. Breadfruit. Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg. Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops 10. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy.

Traditional post-harvest technology of perishable tropical staples
FAO 1984


Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis)
Purdue University Department of Horticulture


Ugwu, F. M. and N.A. Oranye (2006)
Effects of some processing methods on the toxic

Wikipedia's "breadfruit"

Support Wikipedia

Other good reads
:
Glenn Petersen, Micronesia's Breadfruit Revolution and the Evolution of a Culture Area. Archaeology in Oceania 41:82-92, 2006.



©2013 Jeffrey C. Marck, Cairo, Egypt




































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